Land Art…   Type of modern art that uses natural substances, such as rocks and soil as its raw materials.  Earth art  or Earthworks emerged in the United States in the late 1960s early 1970s.

Land artists rejected the commercialization of art and where concerned  with ‘back to the land’ reaction against the destruction of the countryside through urbanization and industrialization.

Land Artists

Robert Smithson 


Andy Goldsworthy

Richard Long

Robert Smithson  Spiral Jetty

350px-spiral-jetty-from-rozel-pointA road of earth and rocks running out into the Great Salt Lake Utah U.S  

Smithson died in a plane crash when he was surveying one of his works. This sadly suggests that land art can be viewed better from an aerial viewpoint.  Because of the size and location of the works, they are often presented as photographs and are very beautiful in this media. Maps are also use to define where  this work is located and is taken to be part of the art work.

Land Art can be seen as part of the wider movement of Conceptual art.

Richard Long  A Line made by Walkingimages-1

A line made  by walking is simply that, walking the same line to create  an indentation in the earth.  This would be difficult to view in a gallery space , so photograph was the best way to view this piece.


Andy Goldsworthy  is also called an environmental artist or sculptor, he collaborates with nature to make creations and his goal is to understand nature by participating as intimately as he can. He works with whatever materials come to hand, twigs, leaves, stones, snow, ice ,reeds and thorns. If its snowing he works with snow, an environmentally important attitude.   ‘Looking, touching, place and form  are all inseparable from the resulting work’. Andy Goldsworthy 

Land Art and Environmental Art can be linked to Arte Povera, because of the link in not using consumer products, nature is free, inspired by Cubism and Minimal art the work of Brancusi  Beuys and conceptual artist and designer Isamu Noguchi , who had an unlimited field for abstract sculptural expression. images

Richard Serra Minimal Artist    The Matter of Time 

200px-the_matter_of_time As an image this for me is very close to what Land Art suggests 

In my opinion Land Art is still needed in this society, probably more today, in these times of waste and every man for himself attitude, a selfish society. We need to turn back to nature to see its true beauty and what it holds for us, rather than the rape of it as we have been doing.  It may click an unconscious emotion in us as human beings and lead us back to a basic altruistic attitude we desperately need



111 zoom edoardo paolizzi

just what is it that makes todays homes so appealing so different
just what is it that makes todays homes so appealing so different


sarah lucas 

Pop Art embodied the spirit of the 1960s, carnival aspects, colour and grand scale it was immediate punchy and eye catching.


 Pop Art was born in the late 50s in London, Popular Art as it was known was born when Artists from Royal College of Art became aware of advertisers manipulation of the public.  This is post war Britain, with jobs and work, people with money to spend rather than the rationing of the war years, the first generation of post war Britain, and they were out andy warhol campbell soup canto enjoy themselves.

A group of artists called The Independant Group  held a exhibition in the Whitechapel Gallery London, artists including Peter Blake Richard Hamilton and David Hockney, using images of popular culture ,processed pulp and images drawn from advertising, making art the equivilant to Pop Music.


andy warhol 


In the 1950s Eduardo Paolizzi  was experimenting with collage, and the ideas to use processed adverts in art , aware of the infiltration of the American way of life happening in Britain. 

Peter Blake was the man behind the Beatles Sergent Pepper album and David Hockney had taken himself in the London underground to paint.

Over the Atlantic in New York another band of artists were emerging , Andy warhol. Roy Lichtenstein and Claes Oldenburg.

Previous to this in the States the Abstract Expressionists Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko had  been the super heros, Robert Rauchenberg and Jasper Johns were up and coming new artists Rauchenbergsjasper-johns-flag2 art used found objects but Jasper Johns was using encaustic paint and I think one of his greatest pieces flags  opened the door for Pop Art.   Andy Warhol and his soup can are reminiscent , especially in colours used.  Warhol also used collage and screenprints. 

Pop Art opened the doors and led to Conceptual art Artists Jeff Koons and Sarah Lucas came from Pop Art

German Expressionism

nosferatushadow1A number of related creative movements including Die Brucke

and Der Blaue Riter. First emerged in Germany pre WWI, and reached its peak in 1920s. This was a part of a larger Expressionist movement in North and Central Europe.

Theatre, Architecture, Music, Painting and Sculpture is also part of this movement.

German Expressionism in filmaking was  probably the best known part of the movement.  Unable to compete with what was the extravagent features of Hollywood productions the German UFA studios developed their own style by using symbolism and “mise en scene” to add mood and deeper meaning to a movie.

Best known film Nosferatu, a symphony of horror is an exceptional piece of expressionism, taking what the movement was about to show feeling and emotion and suggests the work is created by artist rendering their individual and personal perceptions of the subject.

Artists included in this movement …Max Beckmann. Otto Dix, George Grosz and Edvard Munch.

Max Beckmann 1814-1950 German painter,draftsman, printmaker,sculptor and writer was considered a “degenerate artist” by the Nazi regime and fled to Amsterdam in 1937.   Beckmanns work titled         Night was a response to the end of  WWI , a general strike occured in Germany and the country became a place of  political violence,chaos and famine.   Great cruelty moved from the streets  into the home and according to Beckmann Night and its purpose was to give “mankind a picture of their fate”. 

the night by max beckmann

the night by max beckmann









Degenerate art was a derogatory  title applied to anything modern.  The Nazis restricted anything thought to be degenerate and banned the public from seeing these pieces of work.

Otto Dix

Artist famous for his unique and grotesque style.  Many of his works w

ere destroyed by the Nazi regime . Only after becoming a member of The Imperial Chamber of Fine Art was Dix and many others allowed to continue painting, and only if they conceded to paint non offensive landscape, rather than poltical subject. ” I did not paint war pictures in order to prevent war, I would never be so arrogant, I painted them to exorcise the experience of war. All art is is exorcism”   Otto Dix

Nude girl on a fur by Otto Dix

Nude girl on a fur by Otto Dix

The Maja by Goya

The Maja by Goya

A sense of unglamorised reality painted in the style and comosition of German Renaissance artists..   Dix also employes a similar painting technique to the Old Masters, notable for linearity and use of glazes.
In my opinion this pice is very similar to The Maja by Goya, the first painting to show real nakedness  I can only surmise that Dix was aware of Goya and his work and was influenced by this.
Egon Schiele is another artist I feel had an influence on Otto Dix for the play with the grotesque. Nude girl with crossed arms 1910 his draughtsmanship expresses despair, passion, lonliness and erotisicm.  The rawness made him a controversial artist, and many of his works confiscated or burned as degenerate.
Artists who have been inspired by this movement are Francis Bacon and Lucien Freud, both figirative painters, who paint in a realist way, both closely observred pain and are reminscent of Schiele dictum that all living things are dead.


Futurism was a major Italian art movement, avant garde in the years preceding WWI.  Founded and inspired by Filippo Tomasso Marinettii in 1909.  The futurists loved speed, noise ,machines, pollution ,and cities and glorified violence and energy.  Futurism also depicts motion, shallow spaces and shifting planes, optical and temporal space of the modern age. They embraced the new world in which they lived, but rather than enjoying it they denounced the forces that made it possible.  The manifesto by Marinetti, a poet, attacked established cultural values, they had a loathing for anything old especially artistic and political tradition.  “We  want no part of it, the past, . We are the young and strong Futurists”

Futurists practiced in every medium of art , painting ,sculpture, graphic design, literature, music, interior design, architecture and even gastronomy.

Technical Manifeso

Concerned with the idea of conveying a sense of movement in futurist paintings, blurring forms or overlapping images in the manner of high speed muliple exposure photoghraphy is apparent.  The art was aimed at the idea of intuition, which they defined as “simple indivisable experience of symphathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object, to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it”  Presenting the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted.

Artists in Futurism  were Umberto Boccioni , Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla and Luigi Russolo. 

Umberto Boccioni Modern Idol 1911image_permanent_boccioniBoccioni attempts to unite his subjects with the space  and objects that surrounds them, creating movement.

Giacomo BallagballaartAbstract speed and sound.1912 Light and movent are apparent in this painting.  Gino Severini a painter was also interested in the idea of light and movement pcai9xy2lca1ihjf8carj3kbjcahebd62ca2q1tyica6sw71hcawfwbhaca313vrpcavqewibcabvjgceca5q4p3tcau0l665cafkq5ajcacp7kcecax12305cahnomilcam4qt1xca2j9o1cca5iy6laand colour as this piece shows  called Danseuse.  The art of noise was established by Luigi Russolo, being the turn of the century and machine was new and exciting Russolo made, by hand ,machines to make noise and i love the sculptural ideas and the influences of this.intonarumori

Political Times

Fascism.           Political. philosophical  movement in Italy,  a regime that exhalts nation, and often race above individual.  Having a central autocratic goverment headed by a dictator.  Marinitti although a friend of Mussolini, and supported Facsism did not support the statement that Futurism was the “official art of Fascism”  Fascism used both traditional and avande garde art for propoganda purposes and Futurism was one of a number of movements it plundered for these reasons.

The fragmented form of Cubism and the bright colour of neo expressionism were the major influences.  Subjects were taken from modern city life, machines and power centered in Futurism, just as it had with the Cubists and Constructivists.  Futurists had a influence on Surealism and Pop Art.